This branch of dentistry treats the problems of the periodontium (also called periodontal or periodontal tissue), ie the hard and soft structures that offer support to the teeth: gums, alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and root cement.
All these elements combine together to keep the teeth in the jaws fixed and stable during chewing.
Periodontology deals with the diagnosis, the medical treatment and also the prevention of periodontal diseases. During the dental examination, the specialist examines your gums, checks if a gingival recession has occurred, with a probe checking the periodontal spaces, ie the spaces between the tooth and the gum.
Among the diseases treated by periodontology, periodontitis is certainly the most serious and dangerous because it can easily progress over time and cause serious problems up to cause tooth loss and originate systemic diseases. This is because the infection attacks the bone that supports the teeth.
The development of this disease is caused by the proliferation of bacteria inside the mouth for poor oral hygiene, which initially may cause inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) which, if not treated in time, may involve the underlying tissues originating the periodontitis .
The disease can also be caused by an excess of tartar, dental interventions not performed correctly or as a result of other diseases such as smoking, diabetes, vitamin C deficiencies, etc.
Scientific research has recently shown that periodontitis can also be due to hereditary factors, especially in its most aggressive forms.
Unfortunately, this disease, despite its seriousness, tends to occur with mild symptoms that make people do not realize they have it.
This disease, the mildest of periodontal diseases, is manifested by a reddening of the gingiva margins, swelling and even bleeding during the rubbing of the toothbrush. It can occur in chronic or acute form: in the first case it is due to the plaque that covers teeth and gums, in the second case to specific infections or traumas.
Gingivitis can be prevented by careful and daily oral hygiene, using a toothbrush and dental floss.
The causes of gingivitis, in addition to poor oral hygiene, are due to smoking, diabetes, genetic predisposition, aging, the abuse of drugs, some drugs, HIV infection, but also pregnancy and puberty can lead to gingivitis.
It is the periodontal disease affecting the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament. It is a practically painless disease: when gingivitis progresses in periodontitis there is no pain, the only symptom of the disease is the loosening of the teeth.
Neglected gingivitis can lead to periodontitis. The plaque, not removed, increases infiltrating under the gingiva. The toxins produced by the bacteria irritate the gums and create an inflammation that undermines the tissues that support the teeth. Periodontal pockets are formed which become infected, deepening and destroying the gingival tissues. The teeth can then loosen and must be removed
Symptoms of periodontal diseases
Bleeding of the gums during the use of the toothbrush
Redness and swelling of the gums
Formation of deep pockets between teeth and gums
Loosening of the teeth
Pain during chewing
Plates and / or pus on the gums
Treatment and treatment of periodontal diseases
Cures and treatments for gingivitis and periodontitis depend on the stage of disease. In the case of a gingivitis in the initial phase it will be sufficient to remove the plaque and ensure a daily and thorough oral hygiene.
It intervenes with specific non-surgical therapies to control bacterial growth and with surgical therapies to restore the tissue that supports the teeth.
Non-surgical treatments of periodontology for gum disease
As we have mentioned, the dentist in the initial phase of the disease will remove plaque and tartar with a complete dental cleaning.
Deeper cleaning, which is done under local anesthesia, of root surfaces to remove plaque and tartar from deep periodontal pockets may be necessary.
Surgical treatment of periodontology for gum disease
Periodontal pocket reduction: the tartar is removed by lifting the gums and then repositioning them adherent to the teeth.
Bone grafting: we use fragments of our bone or synthetic bones or donated bone to replace the destroyed one. The graft will allow bone to regrow.
Soft tissue grafts: it serves to strengthen the gums with a grafted tissue, taken from the mouth.
Guided tissue regeneration: stimulates the growth of gingival and bone tissue. Yay